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Algeria, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast. Its capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the country's far north. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres 919,595 sq mi, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, and the largest in Africa and the Arab world. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by Western Sahara, Mauritania, and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. The country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 48 provinces and 1,541 communes. Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been President since 1999.
National anthems rose to prominence in Europe during the 19th century, but some originated much earlier. The oldest national anthem belongs to the Netherlands and is called the Wilhelmus. It was written between 1568 and 1572 during the Dutch Revolt, but did not become the official anthem until 1932.
The Japanese anthem, Kimigayo, has the oldest lyrics, which were taken from a Heian period 794–1185 poem, yet it was not set to music until 1880.
In contrast, the music of Qaumi Taranah, Pakistan's national anthem was composed in 1949, preceding its lyrics, which were written in 1952.
The Philippine anthem Lupang Hinirang was composed in 1898 as wordless incidental music for the ceremony declaring independence from the Spanish Empire. The Spanish poem Filipinas was written the following year to serve as the anthem's lyrics; the current Tagalog version dates to 1962.
God Save the Queen, the national anthem of the United Kingdom and the royal anthem reserved for use in the presence of the Monarch in some Commonwealth Realms, was first performed in 1745 under the title God Save the King.
Spain's national anthem, the Marcha Real The Royal March, written in 1761, was among the first to be adopted as such, in 1770. Denmark adopted the older of its two national anthems, Kong Christian stod ved højen mast, in 1780; and La Marseillaise, the French anthem, was written in 1792 and adopted in 1795. Serbia became the first Eastern European nation to have a national anthem – Rise up, Serbia! – in 1804.
Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu, the national anthem of Kenya, is one of the first national anthems to be specifically commissioned. It was written by the Kenyan Anthem Commission in 1963 to serve as the anthem after independence from the United Kingdom.
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